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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Review of Electrochemical Principles as Applied to Corrosion of Steel in a Concrete or Grout Environment
Author(s): John Fraczek
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 13-24
Keywords: chlorides; corrosion; electrolysis; galvanic corrosion; pH; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; Materials Research
Abstract:Corrosion of steel in concrete proceeds at a far greater rate in the presence of chloride ions. Most researchers agree that chloride ions act as an essential part of the corrosion cell by 1) lowering the pH of the concrete pore water in contact with the steel, thereby dissolving the passive oxide film on the steel surface, or 2) penetrating the film to react with and trans-port the metallic iron into the electrolyte. In the latter process, the resulting iron chloride complex ion combines with hydroxyl ions to form ferrous hydroxide in solution and lower the pH. This, in turn, thins out the oxide film and speeds penetration of chloride ions. Eventually the continuing cor-rosive action results in a pit. To initiate corrosion, a threshold concentration of chloride is needed in excess of the amount immobilized by reaction with tricalcium aluminate in the cement. Investigation of the chloride ion content in concrete adjacent to corroding reinforcing steel shows the concentration to be 1.0 to 1.4 lb of chloride ion per cubic yard of concrete (0.59-0.83 kg/m3).
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