Title: Laying Concrete Under Water-Detroit River Tunnel
Author(s): Olaf Hoff
Publication: Journal Proceedings
Appears on pages(s): 180-193
In reviewing the great number of subaqueous structures as designed and constructed by engineers in the past, one cannot fail to note the hesitancy and diffidence with which they have approached the problem of depositing concrete under water, and how they apparently have resorted to this expedient, by way of compromise, where none other seemed available, except at an unjustifiable expense. The reasons are obvious; the chief difficulty among the many presenting themselves being to convey the mass of semi-fluid concrete mixture through the water to its place of deposit in such a manner as to preserve the mixture intact and prevent segregation of its integral parts, which would leave only an inert mass of aggregate.