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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Effect of Cryo-Suction and Air Void Transition Layer on Hydraulic Pressure of Freezing Concrete
Author(s): Paulo J. M. Monteiro, Olivier Coussy, and Denise A. Silva
Publication: Materials Journal
Appears on pages(s): 136-140
Keywords: cracking; shells; shrinkage; voids.
Abstract:Advanced scanning electron microscopy methods were used to characterize the microstructure of cement paste containing entrained air voids. Environmental electron microscopy allowed the imaging of the cement paste without exposing it to high vacuum, therefore significantly eliminating the risk of shrinkage cracks. The fine details of the air-void shell were resolved using field emission microscopy. Finally, ice crystals inside the air-void were imaged using low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. These microscopy studies showed the presence of a transition layer surrounding the air void, which can have a significant effect on the ice formation inside the air voids. The microscopic analysis seems to confirm that the entrained air voids also cause cryo-suction by driving the liquid water from the cement paste during freezing. Both observations are included in a mathematical model that extends the original Powers’ model for freezing of concrete.
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