In today’s market, it is imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition. ACI members have it…they are engaged, informed, and stay up to date by taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them.
Read more about membership
Become an ACI Member
Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
ACI World Headquarters
38800 Country Club Dr.
Farmington Hills, MI
ACI Middle East Regional Office
Second Floor, Office # 02.01/07
The Offices 02 Building, One Central
Dubai World Trade Center Complex
Phone: +971.4.516.3208 & 3209
Feedback via Email
Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Durability of Cementitious Mixtures Used for Sealing Voids in Rubble-Mound Breakwaters and Jetties
Author(s): L. Z. Hales and D. E. Wilson
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 423-446
Keywords: breakwaters; compressive strength; durability; grouting; freeze thaw durability; harbor structures; jetties; nondestructive tests; portland cement; Materials Research
Abstract:Many Corps of Engineers rubble-mound breakwaters and jetties have become permeable to sand transport and wave transmission, resulting in increased dredging costs, risks and delays to navigation, and damage to moored vessels by excessive wave activity. Some Corps coastal districts have applied grouting techniques for sealing these structures by using cementitious and chemical grouts for creating a vertical barrier through a series of vertical holes drilled along the centerline of the structure. To ascertain the effective useful life of such grouts, durability time-dependent tests were conducted by U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) to determine how the materials would endure under near-actual field conditions. A cementitious mixture previously used at Buhne Point, California (Buhne Point Mixture), and a new mixture design (WES Mixture) developed by the WES Structures Laboratory (SL) were evaluated. Specimens were exposed at three weathering stations (including Treat Island, Maine) for the eight-year period 1987 to 1995. Nondestructive tests (ultrasonic pulse velocity and transverse flexural frequency) were conducted periodically during the eight-year evaluation period. Long-term durability exposure field tests revealed spalling of the Buhne Point Mixture due to freezing and thawing. However, nondestructive tests indicated the integrity of all specimens was maintained, as there appeared to be minimal changes in the properties of these cementitious grouts. Grout laced within the core of rock structures may not actually be exposed to the extreme conditions on the weathering platform at Treat Island. Either the WES Mixture or the Buhne Point Mixture may be used as grouting materials to rehabilitate existing Corps rubble-mound breakwaters and jetties by filling voids to prevent passage of excessive wave energy and sediment through such structures.
Click here to become an online Journal subscriber