Concrete Ships--Lessons Learned


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Title: Concrete Ships--Lessons Learned

Author(s): Theodore W. Bremner, Thomas A Holm, and Dudley R. Morgan

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 163


Appears on pages(s): 151-170

Keywords: carbonation; corrosion; durability; lightweight concretes; ships; shotcrete; underwater structures; Materials Research

Date: 8/1/1996

Concrete has been used for ship construction for over 100 years; many of these ships are in locations where they can be readily examined. The condition of some of these ships is discussed in this paper and the results of tests on the ships reported. Instances of improper design, detailing, and construction have been identified. Most of the ships inspected were built under wartime conditions, with limited time for design and construction. Nevertheless, they performed well and, although many are now used for purposes which the designers had not anticipated, they continue to serve a useful purpose. The results of inspection and testing of various ships are given, including compressive strength, depth of carbonation, and chloride content. Recommendations are made for improvements in design, detailing, and construction that, combined with enhanced concrete material properties, should assure that concrete ships built in the future will perform even better than those in the past.