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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Robert E. Lee And Concrete Innovations
Author(s): Bryant Mather
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 239-244
Abstract:Douglas Southall Freeman’s authoritative biography of Robert E. Lee has a chapter on the building of Fort Carroll in the middle of Baltimore Harbor in 1849-1852. In the spring of that year, Lee established that there was a stable hard surface 45 ft below low water and began to work on the construction. These preliminary activities, as recounted by Freeman, included the following: "He experimented in the laying of concrete under water with a tremie." Lee continued with the work until August 1852 when he was sent to be Commandant at West Point. By then some concrete had been placed in Fort Carroll. Lee received information from General Totten on 22 June 1849 on placing concrete with a tremie. Lee replied on 25 June, "I shall make experiments to test the tremie preparatory to laying foundations." These experiments are among the earliest bits of concrete research done in the USA.
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