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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Deterioration of Precast Concrete Panels with Crushed Quartz Coarse Aggregate due to Alkali-Silica Reaction
Author(s): Michael A. Ozol and Donald O. Dusenberry
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 407-416
Keywords: alkali content; alkali-silica reactions; concrete panels; corrosion; cracking (fracturing); deterioration; freeze-thaw durability; petrography; quartz; repairs; spalling; General
Abstract:Five dormitory buildings on the Amherst College campus in Amherst, Massachusetts have essentially identical exposed aggregate precast concrete curtainwall panels. The panels on the three buildings that were constructed in 1963 are severely cracked and spalled; the buildings constructed in 1964 are relatively free of deterioration. The concrete used in the panels of all the buildings is composed of crushed quartz coarse and fine aggregate with strong and hard portland cement paste with low water-cement ratio and low void content. The significant difference between the materials used in the buildings is the amount of alkalies: the alkali content of the portland cement in the 1963 buildings is almost twice as high as in the 1964 buildings. A network of fine cracks developed in the panels due to alkali-silica reaction. These cracks allowed water to enter the panels and freeze during cold weather. The resulting progressive damage has led to disintegration of the cement paste, severe spalling, and corrosion of the reinforcing steel. The phased repair program, which began in the summer of 1989 and is expected to require several years to complete, involves removal and/or replacement of severely damaged panels, repair of damaged panels in place, modification of structural and waterproofing details to reduce exposure, and treating of undamaged panels to prolong their life.
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