Durability of Concrete in Iceland

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Title: Durability of Concrete in Iceland

Author(s): R. Kristjansson and H. Olafsson

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 131

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 381-392

Keywords: aggregates; alkali-aggregate reactions; cracking (fracturing); concrete; durability; environments; freeze-thaw durability; moisture; impregnating; maintenance; pozzolans; repairs; sands; silica fume; structures; General

Date: 3/1/1992

Abstract:
As the sole domestic building material in Iceland, concrete is widely used for house construction as well as for other construction, such as dams, bridges, and harbors. In Iceland, conditions are in many ways extreme: the climatic conditions are harsh, the cement is high in alkalies, aggregates are of varying quality (some being reactive), and codes and standards have been sparse. Field surveys have shown that alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) damage occurs where no preventive measures were taken and other conditions were unfavorable. Preventive measures taken in dam and bridge construction have proven to be effective. No AAR damage has been found in constructions erected after 1979, when several preventive measures were taken. The most important one is 5 to 7+ percent replacement of cement with silica fume Stricter criteria have been enforced to secure freeze-thaw durability, and durability design is improving. Research in repair and maintenance methods has had considerable influence on the construction industry.