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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Concrete Deterioration in a Shipway
Author(s): Ruth D. Terzaghi
Publication: Journal Proceedings
Appears on pages(s): 977-1006
Abstract:Concrete in the gate structure of a large submerged shipway in the southeastern United States began to deteriorate two years after construction was completed. The defects included abnormally low strength of some of the concrete and numerous cracks which became progressively wider. An investigation of the cause of deterioration, begun at this time, concluded microscopic examination and chemical analyses of core specimens, chemical analyses of specimens of water issuing from relief pipes in the pier, frequent crack surveys, periodic measurement of change of length of the pier and change of width of two of the chief cracks, and compression tests on selected core specimens. On the basis of the data obtained by these various methods, it was concluded that detrimental processes of two types are taking place in the concrete. One of these causes expansion of the central part of the pier and thus leads to cracking at the pier surface. This process is ascribed to a reaction between hydrated cement and sulfates and/or other substances softening or even complete disintegration of the concrete. It appears to be due chiefly to a chemical reaction between the paste and carbon dioxide which is present in unusually high concentration in the water percolating through the structure.
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