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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Air Entrainment and Resistance to Freezing and Thawing
Author(s): E. W. Scripture, Jr., S. W. Benedict, and F. J. Litwinowicz
Publication: Journal Proceedings
Appears on pages(s): 297-308
Keywords: no keywords
Abstract:Investigations were undertaken to determine the suitability of various air-entraining agents for use in concrete, the relative effects of slow and rapid cycles of freezing and thawing, and the optimum range of air contents for concrete. With normal air-entraining agents the resistance to freezing and thawing varies mainly with the air content, not with the particular agent used. A rapid freezing and thawing cycle is considerably more destructive than a slow cycle, and abnormal results appear to be produced in some cases by a very fast cycle. With increasing entrained air resistance to freezing and thawing increases to a maximum and thereafter no further benefit appears to be secured. The optimum amount seems to be about 2 1/2 to 3 percent added entrained air.
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