Air Entrainment and Resistance to Freezing and Thawing


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Title: Air Entrainment and Resistance to Freezing and Thawing

Author(s): E. W. Scripture, Jr., S. W. Benedict, and F. J. Litwinowicz

Publication: Journal Proceedings

Volume: 48

Issue: 12

Appears on pages(s): 297-308

Keywords: no keywords

Date: 12/1/1951

Investigations were undertaken to determine the suitability of various air-entraining agents for use in concrete, the relative effects of slow and rapid cycles of freezing and thawing, and the optimum range of air contents for concrete. With normal air-entraining agents the resistance to freezing and thawing varies mainly with the air content, not with the particular agent used. A rapid freezing and thawing cycle is considerably more destructive than a slow cycle, and abnormal results appear to be produced in some cases by a very fast cycle. With increasing entrained air resistance to freezing and thawing increases to a maximum and thereafter no further benefit appears to be secured. The optimum amount seems to be about 2 1/2 to 3 percent added entrained air.