Title: Cold Weather Concreting
Author(s): ACI Committee 306
Publication: Journal Proceedings
Appears on pages(s): 161-183
Keywords: accelerating agents;admixtures;age;aggregates;air-entraining agents;calcium chlorides:cold weather construction;compressive strength;concrete
construction;concretes;curing;durability;form removal;formwork (construction); freeze-thaw durability;heating.
The general requirements for producing satisfactory concrete during cold weather are discussed, as are methods for achieving these requirements. For many structural concretes, protection considerably in excess of that required to insure freedom from damage by early freezing is required to assure safe development of strength. Accelerators, keeping of temperature records, heating of materials, subgrade prepara-tion, protective insulating coverings, heated enclosures, curing, maturity concept, and form removal are discussed. Supplementary material on the effect of curing temperatures on concrete strength is referenced in authoritative sources. A list of selected references is included.