Deterioration of Concrete Structures in the Environment of the Middle East

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Title: Deterioration of Concrete Structures in the Environment of the Middle East

Author(s): Rasheeduzzafar, Fahd H. Dakhi, and Ahmad Saad AI-Gahtani

Publication: Journal Proceedings

Volume: 81

Issue: 1

Appears on pages(s): 13-20

Keywords: chlorides; climate; concrete construction; concrete durability;corrosion; cracking (fracturing); deterioration; humidity; permeability; reinfoced concrete; reinforcing steels; spalling; sulfate attack.

Date: 1/1/1984

Abstract:
Adverse geomorphic and climatic conditions as well as defective construction practices control concrete performance in the Arabian Gulf area. Condition surveys on structures located in Eastern Saudi Arabia show an alarming degree of deterioration within a short span of 10 to 15 years. Data show that this deterioration is attributable in decraesing order of importance to corrsion of reinforcement, sulfate attack, and enviromental cracking. The mechanisms of these casual factors are discussed with respect to the envirmental conditions of the Gulf coast. In these conditions only a comprehensive specification format along withsound construction practices can insure a durable concrete material commensurate with the demands of the local aggressive enviroment. Criteria of specifications should be based on strrength and durablity considerations. These include aggregate evaluation and gradation, binary aggregate proportions, cement type and content, water-cement ratio with respect to strength and permeablity considerations, type reinforcement, and depth of cover.