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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 274 Abstracts search results
November 1, 2021
Salvio A. Almeida Jr. and Serhan Guner
Soft computing applications through artificial intelligence (AI) are becoming increasingly popular in civil engineering. From concrete technology to structural engineering, AIs have provided successful solutions to various problems and greatly reduced the computational costs while achieving excellent prediction accuracy. In this study, a review of the main artificial neural network (ANN) types used in civil engineering is presented. Each ANN type is described, and example applications are provided. As a new research contribution, a deep feedforward neural network (FFNN) is developed to predict the load capacities of post-installed adhesive anchors installed in cracked concrete, which is challenging and computationally expensive to achieve with conventional methods. The development of this FFNN is discussed, the influence of several parameters on its performance is demonstrated, and optimum parameter values are selected. In addition, a hybrid methodology that combines 2D nonlinear finite element (NLFE) techniques with the developed FFNN is briefly presented to account for real-life adverse effects in anchor analysis, including concrete cracking, wind-induced beam bending, and elevated temperatures. The results show that the developed network and methodology can rapidly and efficiently predict the load capacities of adhesive anchors installed into cracked concrete, accounting for the damage caused by the cracks, with high accuracies.
Vitaliy V. Degtyarev
The bond between reinforcing bars and concrete is an important property that determines the performance of reinforced concrete structures. Accurate prediction of the bond strength is essential for ensuring the safety and economy of the structures. This paper proposes an artificial neural network for predicting the bond strength between straight deformed reinforcing bars and concrete under tensile load. The neural network was trained using a large dataset of test results from the ACI Committee 408 database. A robust ten-fold cross-validation method was employed for evaluating network performance and finding optimal network parameters. Hyperparameter tuning was carried out to establish the optimal network hyperparameters. The relative impact of the neural network input parameters on the bond strength was evaluated using the SHAP method. The developed neural network with the optimal hyperparameters shows a good agreement with the test results. Its accuracy exceeds the accuracy of the descriptive equations.
October 31, 2021
ACI Committees 216, 444, and 544
This special publication draws inspiration from the Technical Session entitled “The Concrete Industry in the Era of Artificial Intelligence,” held during the ACI Virtual Concrete Convention in spring 2020. To parallel the Technical Session, this special publication is also tailored to showcase the unprecedented potential of leveraging artificial intelligence (AI) methods—including its derivatives of machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL)—in the concrete industry as a whole.
The idea behind this effort started as a thought during an ACI Committee 216 meeting. From there, both ACI Committees 444 (Chair: Thomas Schumacher) and 554 (Chair: Liberato Ferrara) displayed interest in co-sponsoring this special publication. This special publication comprises fifteen papers (five from our panelists and ten received from authors representing academia and the concrete industry). This collection of papers covers the use of various AI techniques at the material level (i.e., concrete performance and mass-scale testing, property predictions, and optimization, etc.), elemental level (e.g., behavioral and capacity prediction of slabs, walls, beams, and anchorages, etc.), as
well as system level (viz. damage and crack detection of concrete bridges and concrete composite structures).
We are very thankful to ACI, the ACI Technical Activities Committee, as well as all three technical committees. Your kind support and commitment have not only allowed us to explore a new realm of possibilities but have also enabled us to set the stage towards a new and modern future to our industry. Special thanks go to our panelists and contributors who were very kind to share their most recent research and unique ideas pertaining to infusing AI solutions to various problems within our domain. In addition, we send our warm regards to our reviewers, ACI staff, and Ms. Barbara A. Coleman for her help in setting up and editing this effort.
February 1, 2021
Xingxing Zou, Chris Moore, and Lesley H. Sneed
Externally bonded (EB) steel reinforced grout (SRG) composites have the potential to improve the flexural
and shear performance of existing concrete and masonry structural members. However, one of the most commonly
observed failure modes of SRG-strengthened structures is due to composite debonding, which reduces composite
action and limits the SRG contribution to the member load-carrying capacity. This study investigated an endanchorage
system for SRG strips bonded to a concrete substrate. The end anchorage was achieved by embedding the
ends of the steel cords into the substrate. Nineteen single-lap direct shear specimens with varying composite bonded
lengths and anchor binder materials were tested to study the effectiveness of the end-anchorage on the bond
performance. For specimens with relatively long bonded length, the end-anchorage slightly improved the performance
in terms of peak load achieved before detachment of the bonded region. Anchored specimens with long bonded length
showed notable post-detachment behavior. Anchored specimens with epoxy resin achieved load levels significantly
higher than the peak load before composite detachment occurred. For specimens with relatively short bonded length,
the end-anchorage provided a notable increase in peak load and global slip at composite detachment. A generic load
response was proposed for SRG-concrete joints with end anchors.
January 1, 2021
Abheetha Peiris and Issam Harik
Following an over-height truck impact, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) fabric was used to
retrofit the exterior girder in a four-span Reinforced Concrete Deck on Girder (RCDG) Bridge on route KY 562 that
passes over Interstate 71 in Gallatin County, Kentucky. The impacted span (Span 3) traverses the two northbound
lanes of Interstate 71. While the initial retrofit was completed in May 2015, a second impact in September 2018
damaged all four girders in Span 3. The previously retrofitted exterior girder (Girder 4) suffered the brunt of the
impact, with all steel rebars in the bottom layer being severed. Damage to Girders 1, 2, and 3 was minor and none of
the bars were damaged. A two-stage approach for the containment and repair of the damaged girders following an
over-height truck impact was implemented when retrofitting the bridge. The repair and strengthening of all the girders
using CFRP fabric was the economical option compared to the alternative option of replacing the RCDG bridge. The
initial CFRP retrofit was found to have failed in local debonding around the impact location. The CFRP retrofit
material that was not immediately near the impact location was found to be well bonded to the concrete. The removal
of this material and subsequent surface preparation for the new retrofit was time consuming and challenging due to
traffic constraints. In Girder 4 all but one of the main rebars were replaced by removing the damaged sections and
installing straight rebars connected to the existing rebars with couplers. One of the rebars could not be replaced. A
heavy CFRP unidirectional fabric, having a capacity of 534 kN (120,000 lbs.) per 305 mm (1 ft.) width of fabric, was
selected for the flexural strengthening and deployed to replace the loss in load carrying capacity. A lighter
unidirectional CFRP fabric was selected for anchoring and shear strengthening of all the girders, and to serve as
containment of crushed concrete in the event of future over-height impacts. The retrofit with spliced steel rebars and
CFRP fabric proved to be an economical alternative to bridge replacement.
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