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International Concrete Abstracts Portal

Showing 1-10 of 13 Abstracts search results

Document: 

SP116-12

Date: 

August 1, 1989

Author(s):

William C. McBee, Harold Weber, and Frank E Ward

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

116

Abstract:

Composite materials based on sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and mineral aggregate have been developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as part of a program to utilize abundant mineral resources. Program goals are to develop durable, chemically resistant construction materials to increase productivity in the chemical, fertilizer, and metallurgical industries by lowering maintenance costs for labor, energy, equipment, and material. This paper describes the research related to development of SPC, the sulfur concrete (SC), and the industrial testing, together with commercial-scale equipment development and large-scale construction practices. Thermoplastic SPC is produced commercially by reacting cyclic olefinic hydrocarbon chemical modifiers with elemental sulfur at 300 F (149 C) in a sealed chemical reactor. The molten SPC is mixed with mineral aggregates, producing a high-strength concrete product with an average compressive strength of 7000 psi (48 MPa) upon cooling. State-of-the-art production and construction techniques are described. Currently, SC materials are showing superior performance characteristics to portland cement concrete (PCC) in special industrial applications where corrosive environments exist.

10.14359/3501


Document: 

SP116-11

Date: 

August 1, 1989

Author(s):

C. Vipulandan and N. Dharmarajan

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

116

Abstract:

Fracture behavior of polyester polymer concrete was investigated at room temperature using single edge notched beams loaded in four-point bending. To investigate the effect of particle size distribution on the fracture properties, polyester polymer concrete systems were formulated using both uniform Ottawa 20-30 sand and well graded blasting sand. The notch sensitivity of polyester polymer concrete systems was investigated by varying the notch-to-depth ratio up to 0.7. The results are analyzed to examine the applicability of fracture parameters such as critical stress intensity factor KIC and critical J-integral JIC, to characterize the fracture behavior of polyester polymer concrete. This concrete is a notch sensitive material, and if it contains well-graded aggregate, it has better fracture properties than the uniformly graded aggregate system.

10.14359/2352


Document: 

SP116-10

Date: 

August 1, 1989

Author(s):

Jack J. Fontana, Walter Reams, and David Elling

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

116

Abstract:

Reports the development of a premixed electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay for use on bridge decks and other concrete members, in conjunction with cathodic protection systems. The development of a conductive overlay culminated in the installation of such an overlay on a full-bridge deck in Pulaski, Virginia; the active cathodic protection system has operated for 8 months and is being monitored on a monthly basis. The monitoring shall continue for about 18 months. The conductive overlay was placed by a local contractor with technical assistance. The cathodic protection system was designed by a corrosion engineering firm. The installation of the conductive overlay and cathodic protection system cost less than $18.00 a square foot.

10.14359/3453


Document: 

SP116-09

Date: 

August 1, 1989

Author(s):

Jack J. Fontana and Peter Mendis

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

116

Abstract:

Liquified natural gas (LNG) is usually stored in large tanks surrounded by impounding dikes. If an accidental spill occurs, the LNG boils off and the vapors form a hazardous, explosive mixture with the atmosphere. The rate of evaporation of the LNG depends on the rate of heat transfer from the dike surface to the liquid gas. If the rate of heat transfer is reduced, the rate of evaporation of the LNG and the creation of hazardous conditions are also reduced. Reduction in heat transfer can be achieved by installing and insulating polymer concrete (IPC) overlay on the surface of the containing dikes. The IPC described in this paper was installed on approximately 56,000 ftý of the floor and 18,000 ftý of the sloped wall areas of the dike. It was based on a special moisture insensitive epoxy polymer concrete binder mixed with multicellular glass beads and ceramic-like shell fines to obtain insulating properties. A flame retardant agent was also added to improve fire resistance. The IPC was mixed in a continuous polymer concrete mixer and spread by vibrating screed. The different application techniques are described.

10.14359/3450


Document: 

SP116-08

Date: 

August 1, 1989

Author(s):

David W. Fowler

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

116

Abstract:

Polymer concrete (PC) has attracted significant interest in the past 15 years. It began primarily as a repair material for portland cement concrete, particularly bridges and pavements, and has now attracted considerable interest for other applications. A survey was conducted to determine the predicted needs and trends in the industry. The respondents, representing a wide range of backgrounds, indicated that precast products would have the greatest impact and, among precast products, utility components would lead the way. The greatest needs in the industry were deemed to be lower cost and improved monomers and resins. Many opinions were presented on the needed developments in materials properties. The author also presents his predictions on future trends in monomers and resins, aggregates, equipment, repair, precast products, and overlays. Future needs including improved training, public awareness, and research are discussed.

10.14359/2342


Document: 

SP116-07

Date: 

August 1, 1989

Author(s):

D. J. Rodler, D. P. Whitney, D. W. Fowler, and D. L. Wheat

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

116

Abstract:

Three high molecular weight methacrylate monomer systems were tested to determine their effectiveness in repairing cracked portland cement concrete (PPC). Ultimate strains across repaired cracks, modulus of rupture, and percent of crack filled for slabs repaired with the monomers and stiffnesses of repaired beams were investigated. Tests on small, cracked slabs were also conducted under hot and wet conditions. One hundred thirty-five PCC slabs, 9 PCC beams, and 12 tension specimens were tested. The results varied with respect to the stiffnesses of the polymers. All monomer systems were shown to increase the stiffness of cracked flexural members and to fill cracks as small as 0.1 mm in width. The performance of the systems was affected adversely by moisture and heat. Minimum drying periods after saturation of the cracked concrete with water were determined.

10.14359/2764


Document: 

SP116-06

Date: 

August 1, 1989

Author(s):

Ronald P. Webster and Lawrence E. Kukacka

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

116

Abstract:

Results are presented from the preliminary phase of a laboratory test program conducted to identify and evaluate materials for converting hazardous geothermal residues to a nonhazardous and potentially usable form. Laboratory test results indicate that geothermal residues can be effectively incorporated as a fine aggregate into polymer concrete (PC) and portland cement mortar (PCM) composites. PC composites made using an emulsifiable polyester resin and a methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based monomer system exhibited compressive strengths varying between 3700 and 16,500 psi (25.5 and 113.8 MPa), depending upon the type of binder used and the moisture content of the residue. Waste extraction tests (WET) performed on ground samples of the composites indicate elemental levels of leachable heavy metals are below specified soluble threshold limit concentrations (STLC). PCM composites exhibited compressive strengths varying between 2875 and 5530 psi (19.8 and 38.1 MPa), depending upon the type, amount, and moisture content of the residue. WET analysis indicates elemental levels of leachable heavy metals are below specified STLC values for all but one of the PCM composites evaluated.

10.14359/2331


Document: 

SP116-05

Date: 

August 1, 1989

Author(s):

Michael M. SprinkelI

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

116

Abstract:

Presents 6-year results of a study undertaken to evaluate multiple-layer polymer concrete overlays (MLPCO) over a 10-year period. The paper indicates that an overlay with low permeability and high skid resistance can be successfully installed by a contractor, state, or federal labor forces with minimum traffic disruption. The MLPCO evaluated were constructed with four polyester resins and silica sand, a polyester para-resin and silica sand, two flexible epoxies and basalt aggregate, and three EP5-LV epoxies and silica sand. A single-layer high molecular weight methacrylate overlay was also evaluated. With the exception of the overlay constructed with the polyester para-resin, the initial condition of the 20 overlays evaluated between 1981 and 1987 was good to excellent from the standpoint of permeability, skid resistance, and bond, although some overlays were better than others. Also, with the one exception, the overlays were in good-to-excellent condition after 1 year in service, but the permeability had increased and the bond strength and skid resistance had decreased significantly.

10.14359/2851


Document: 

SP116-04

Date: 

August 1, 1989

Author(s):

Kenneth J. Fridley, Dan L. Wheat, and David W. Fowler

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

116

Abstract:

A summary of the results of an experimental program to investigate the structural behavior of composite sandwich beams having polymer concrete (PC) on the top and bottom facings is presented. The possible application of PC as a facing material is of interest since it may provide an effective use for the material. A total of 18 different cross-sectional configurations were investigated. Polyester-based PC facings were used in conjunction with three separate core materials: sand-lightweight portland cement concrete, expanded polystyrene foam, and rigid polyurethane foam. Various combinations of core and facing thicknesses were used. Load-deflection responses, strain and stress distributions, modes of failure, and ultimate strengths of the beams were monitored. The experimental results were compared to sandwich beam theory and, in general, compared well. Overall, the results of the study suggest that the application of PC as a facing material holds high potential and warrants further attention.

10.14359/2848


Document: 

SP116-03

Date: 

August 1, 1989

Author(s):

W. Glenn Smoak

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

116

Abstract:

Acrylic polymer concrete was used to repair absorptive aggregate "pop outs" on the concrete stilling basin apron of Palisades Dam, Idaho. This work was accomplished during December 1986 when ambient air temperatures were below -10 F (-23 C). Ice dikes were used to direct gate leakage away from the repair areas. Hot forced-air heaters, gas-fired weed burners, and incandescent electrical lights were used to provide heat to the repairs.

10.14359/3366


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