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Title: Pullout Analysis of Composite Loops Embedded in Steel- Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall Panels

Author(s): Pierre van Tonder and Christoff Cornelis Kruger

Publication: Structural Journal

Volume: 120

Issue: 3

Appears on pages(s): 101-114

Keywords: anchor loops; pullout failure; reinforced concrete; retaining panels; supplementary reinforcement

DOI: 10.14359/51738462

Date: 5/1/2023

Modular concrete elements are used for retaining walls to provide lateral support. Depending on the retaining wall layout, these precast panels may be interlocking and may be tied into the soil backfill through geosynthetic strips. This study investigates the ultimate pullout load increase, which is possible by adding varied diameter supplementary reinforcement through embedded anchor loops within concrete retaining wall panels. Previous research has investigated supplementary reinforcement around the anchor loops. This paper extends this investigation by evaluating supplementary reinforcement placed through the panel anchor loops. Full-scale panels used in practice have four embedded anchor points. However, only one anchor loop was embedded in the center of the experimental panels. The experimental panels were also cast without any bending reinforcement, as would typically be obtained in the full-scale panels. These reinforcements were purposefully excluded to evaluate the impact of a single-bar reinforcement through the center of the anchor loops. Failures that occurred were loop, panel, and a mixture thereof. Overall, the reinforced panels showed a 14 to 23% increase in the factor of safety.