Title: Limestone Calcined Clay Cements (LC3)
Author(s): Franco Zunino, Fernando Martirena, and Karen Scrivener
Publication: Materials Journal
Appears on pages(s): 49-60
Keywords: calorimetry; durability; embodied energy; metakaolin; sustainability
The climate emergency requires the adoption of strategies and technologies that effectively reduce CO2 emissions in the short to midterm to keep the global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Concrete is the substance most consumed by humanity after water. The blended cements in which supplementary cementitious materials replace part of the energy-intensive clinker are the most realistic means to obtain large-scale CO2 reductions. Limestone calcined clay cements (LC3)—blended cements produced by the combination of limestone, calcined clays, and portland cement (OPC)—provides a solution that achieves equivalent mechanical performance to OPC, better durability against chloride, and alkali-silica reaction reduction of CO2 emissions by approximately 40%. Furthermore, it is cost-effective compared to OPC currently on the market. Due to the similarities with OPC, it is a material that can be adopted today using the same construction equipment and workforce worldwide.