Title: Creep and Drying Shrinkage of Different Fly-Ash-Based Geopolymers
Author(s): Chamila Gunasekera, Sujeeva Setunge, and David W. Law
Publication: Materials Journal
Appears on pages(s): 39-49
Keywords: compressive strength; creep; drying shrinkage; fly ash; geopolymer concrete; microstructure development; porosity distribution
Fly ash geopolymer concrete is a sustainable green construction material that has outstanding mechanical performance and is a low-energy material with a low carbon footprint. In this study, a detailed investigation of the long-term creep and drying shrinkage of three different 100% fly ash geopolymer concretes was carried out up to 1 year of age. Two geopolymers, produced from Gladstone and Pt. Augusta fly ashes, achieved approximately 700 microstrain at the end of 1 year—equivalent to the total creep strain displayed by portland cement (PC) concrete. Moreover, both geopolymer concretes displayed a lower creep coefficient than PC concrete. Hence, AS 3600 or the CEB-FIP model could be conservatively used to predict creep coefficient for two geopolymers. However, the Tarong fly ash geopolymer concrete differed significantly from the other geopolymers and achieved approximately 1900 microstrain after 1 year. The drying shrinkage of Gladstone and Pt. Augusta geopolymer concretes at 1 year are 175 and 190 microstrain, respectively, while Tarong geopolymer and PC concrete achieved 615 and 475 microstrain, respectively. All the fly ash geopolymer concrete showed lower drying shrinkage than the maximum permitted value recommended by AS3600. Incorporation of calcium-aluminasilicate-hydrate (C-A-S-H) gel with the sodium-alumina-silicatehydrate (N-A-S-H) geopolymeric gel was seen to positively affect the packing density of the gel phase. The degree of uniformity and compactness of aluminosilicate gel matrix together with the macroporosity in the 50 nm to 1 μm range was identified as determining the long-term creep and drying shrinkage of the 100% low-calcium fly ash geopolymer concrete.