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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development and distribution of consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: A Tale of Two Buildings: Case Studies of Underpinning by Compaction Grouting
Author(s): Frederick R. Rutz, Jennifer Harris, and James Robert Harris
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 39-54
Keywords: Case Study, Hydro-Compressive Soil, Compaction Grouting, Debris Fan, Underpinning
Abstract:Two concrete masonry buildings, at adjacent sites in Glenwood Springs, Colorado, are located atop existing collapsible debris fan soils. Both buildings were constructed on concrete foundations with spread footings, and both suffered serious and damaging differential settlements. Compaction grouting was utilized for underpinning and lifting both buildings. Compaction grout columns are comprised of a low slump and low strength grout made from a combination of sand, soil, pea gravel, cement, and water. When installed under pressure, the grout densifies the surrounding soils supporting the building foundation, and when carried to the underside of footings, the grout can offer direct support. The grout was also used to lift and partially level the buildings. But here the similarity ends; each had unique circumstances and the repair designs were custom tailored. One was underpinned with deep (100’) compaction grout columns while the other received a much shallower underpinning treatment. Each had unique drainage problems. Both projects were challenging and required cooperation among the Owners, Structural, Geotechnical and Civil Engineers, and the Contractors. The geotechnical studies, the structural design for repair, the drainage provisions for each, and the construction are described, with a focus on structural damage, design of the underpinning to be compatible with the structural capacities, and control systems utilized during construction.
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