In today’s market, it is imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition. ACI members have it…they are engaged, informed, and stay up to date by taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them.
Read more about membership
Become an ACI Member
Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
ACI World Headquarters
38800 Country Club Dr.
Farmington Hills, MI
ACI Middle East Regional Office
Second Floor, Office # 02.01/07
The Offices 02 Building, One Central
Dubai World Trade Center Complex
Phone: +971.4.516.3208 & 3209
Feedback via Email
Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Incorporating Cracks in Chloride Ingress Modeling and Service Life Predictions
Author(s): Jose Pacheco
Publication: Materials Journal
Appears on pages(s): 113-118
Keywords: chloride exposure; concrete cracking; service life
Abstract:The presence of uncontrolled or unexpected nonstructural cracking in reinforced concrete structures generally leads to conflict and disputes. The current industry practice aims to prevent or mitigate the presence of cracking at early ages (that is, plastic shrinkage, thermally induced cracking) or due to volumetric changes (restrained or drying shrinkage). However, cracking of concrete can still occur and lead to questioning the durability of concrete with prolonged service life expectations such as bridge decks, piers, or waterfront structures, to name a few. The effect of cracks on chloride penetration has been thoroughly studied, and evidence of the effect of cracks on accelerated ingress of chlorides is well established. Structural codes and guides, on the other hand, consider that the integrity of the concrete element is not significantly affected as long as the crack width does not exceed a recommended limit based on exposure conditions. Similarly, service life predictions based on chloride ingress modeling disregard the effect of cracks. Because crack-free concrete cannot be guaranteed, service life predictions that neglect the effect of cracks can be significantly inaccurate. A simplified approach is presented in this paper, where a correction to the chloride diffusion coefficient of concrete is performed to account for the effect of cracks. This correction is similar, in principle, to the so-called aging or decay coefficient in concrete. Results of Monte Carlo simulations on chloride ingress and estimations of the time-to-corrosion initiation are presented and discussed. Results indicate that a decrease of the reliability index (β), or an increase in the probability of failure (pf), can be calculated when accounting for the effect of cracks.
Click here to become an online Journal subscriber