Foamed Cement Generation Methods: Insights from Macro-Porosity and Void Distribution

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Title: Foamed Cement Generation Methods: Insights from Macro-Porosity and Void Distribution

Author(s): L. E. Dalton, D. Crandall, K. Shanley, M. Gill, E. Rosenbaum, J. Moore, G. Ahmadi, B. Kutchko, and J. Chipkin

Publication: Materials Journal

Volume: 115

Issue: 1

Appears on pages(s): 89-103

Keywords: computed tomography scanning; foamed cement; wellbore cement; wellbore integrity

Date: 1/1/2018

Abstract:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) Recommended Practice 10B-4 is the industry standard for measuring foamed cement stability; however, it does not incorporate the effects of elevated pressure or placement. Using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning, this study examines how cement slurry flow through pipes impacts void distribution in cured foamed cement. Analysis of void size and distribution allows a comparison of lab and field generation; simulated velocity profiles indicate cement flow through constrictions likely influences structural variations. Notably, field-generated samples show more nitrogen bubbles at the injection port. Moreover, a review of the average bubble diameter concludes lab samples have average bubble sizes that increase with their quality, while field samples have similar average bubble diameters suggesting variation among generation methods.