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B: A G E N D A
ACI 214 OA Evaluation of Strength Test Results of Concrete
Document Preparation- Sub-Committee of ACI 214
ACI Fall Convention 2017 Anaheim, California
October 16, 2017 12:30 PM-2:00 PM Room P-Big Sur
Group Objective: Provide recommendations to the 214 committee for the direction of the 214 documents so that the documents remain a relevant, consolidated resources used by the industry to correctly apply basic statistical concepts to various concrete tests, while providing guidance on interpretation and the limitations of statistical inference.
Meeting Objectives:
Chapter leads report on status of Rough Draft Chapter Outlines
Discuss issues, needs, and roadblocks.
Review Timeline for milestones and completion.
Summary report for Main Committee
Call to order. Welcome members and guests.
Report on Chapter Assignments
Chapter 1-Introduction and Scope (A.Luke) Review Comments
Chapter 2-Notation and Definitions (A.Luke)
Chapter 3-History of 214 (A.Luke/Castles) Will be a CI Article
Chapter 4-Basis of Statistical Methods (Castles/Bartlett)
Chapter 5-Application of Statistical Methods to Strength Test Data (Luciano)
Chapter 6-Application of Statistical Methods to ACI 318/ACI 301 Mix Design Criteria (Kauffman/Werner/Bognacki)
Chapter 7-Evaluation of Strength Test Data (Luciano/Parnes/Bartlett)
Chapter 8-Applicability of Methods to other concrete tests. (Vogt/Shilstone)
Chapter 9-Percent With-in Limits Pay Factors (Castles)
Chapter 10-Other Statistical Tools (Bartlett/Luciano/Knight)
Chapter 11-References (A. Luke)
Review Timeline
Ballot Current Drafts in subcommittee before ?
Ballot Documents
TAC Review Comments
Review summary report for presentation to full committee.
Adjourn
Attachments: Chapter One DraftCHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION
Concrete material properties are inherently variable, due to:
Batch-to-batch variation, caused by variation of the proportions and characteristics of the constituent materials in the concrete, the production, delivery, and handling process, and climatic conditions; and,
Within-test variations, caused by variation of the sampling, specimen preparation, curing, and testing procedures.
ACI Committee 214, Evaluation of Results of Tests Used to Determine the Strength of Concrete was therefore established in 1946 to recommend practices to (1) quantify the variation of concrete strengths and (2) support rational procedures for determining strength compliance that recognize the inherent variability of concrete strengths. The first committee report, published in 1957, was intended to introduce basic statistical methods and to facilitate dispute mediation by describing the sources of strength variation.
Compressive strength is the most commonly measured concrete property, so this document focuses on the evaluation of compressive strength test results. The procedures described are applicable to the compressive-strength compliance criteria specified in ACI 301, ACI 318, and other similar specifications and codes. The statistical concepts and methods described are applicable for analysis of other common concrete test results, however, including flexural strength, slump, air content, and density.
Statistical procedures are valuable tools to evaluate strength test results. Information derived from such procedures is also valuable to refining design criteria, specifications, and production quality control plans. The development of digital computing devices has greatly facilitated the implementation of these tools since they were presented in ACI 214-57. The current document is intended to demystify statistical concepts and illustrate the application of statistical techniques to familiar and recurring challenges in analyzing concrete strengths. In particular, it discusses variations that occur in concrete strength test results and presents statistical procedures that are useful in the interpretation of these variations with respect to specified testing, acceptance, and quality control criteria.
Concrete material strengths can be quantified with reasonable accuracy only when an adequate number of tests are conducted, strictly in accordance with standard practices and test methods.
The data must be derived from samples obtained using a random sampling plan designed to reduce the possibility that selection will be exercised by the sampler and so introduce biases that will invalidate the analyses. Each possible sample must have an equal chance of being selected. To ensure this condition, the selection should be made by using objective mechanism such as that recommended in ASTM D 3665.
Concrete strength test results typically fall around a central value, quantified as the average, or arithmetic mean, with some dispersion, quantified as the standard deviation. Chebyshevs Inequality states that no more than 1/k2 of the distribution's values lie more than k standard deviations away from the mean. Thus it can be expected that no more than 25% of the data lie more than 2 standard deviations from the mean, and no more than 11% of the data lie more than 3 standard deviations from the mean. Experience has shown, and experiments demonstrate, that concrete tests tend to follow a Normal, or Gaussian, distribution the so-called bell shaped curve, that has approximately 4.5% of the data lying more than 2 standard deviations from the mean.
This report begins with a discussion of the sources of variability in concrete as produced, mixed, and transported, and the additional variability of samples obtained from the concrete as delivered and tested. The report then describes the statistical tools used to evaluate the variability of concrete and determine compliance with a given specification, including both random variation and variation due to assignable causes. Statistically based specifications are also reviewed.
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