••Architectural features—two mixture types; and ••Decorative elements—one mixture type (one mixture type
was used twice).
We also identified 17 different pavement patterns in the
park, listing them with primary aggregate types and locations.
During our survey, we measured and recorded deterioration
at all the concrete surfaces. We surveyed horizontal surfaces
in July and August 2000, and vertical surfaces from November
2000 through January 2001. Our survey included a preliminary
physical condition survey in which we developed a typology
Using the definitions in ACI 201.1R-92,1 we established
deterioration types to survey as cracks (C); spalls (S);
delamination (D); advanced efflorescence associated with
cracks, spalls, and delamination (E); and repairs (R).
We evaluated both original historic concrete and
replacement concrete in the entire park, with additional marks
and notes locating joints and changes in the concrete surface
and pattern. We noted in detail the condition of all the vertical
surfaces and exposed aggregate decorative concrete features,
including all perimeter walls and integral piers defining the
edge of the park, architectural features marking major
50 MAY 2019 | Ci | www.concreteinternational.com
entrances and significant vantage points, and low walls
defining walkways, plazas, plantings, and fountain basins.
Piers and bench bases were of particular concern because
of widespread deterioration. We identified all types of
deterioration at piers and benches—including the extent of
surface cracks, spalls, delamination, and missing sections or
pieces—assigning each pier a number 0 to 3, from minimal
visible damage to advanced visible damage.
Most of the park’s fabric is historic, dating to the original
construction, but we also noted repairs or replacement
concrete. We evaluated these for their success in matching
adjacent historic concrete and the current condition of the repair.
We developed a series of alpha-numeric designations to
describe the type of deterioration with a preliminary
assessment of repair feasibility and type, specific to the
various concrete elements. We noted these assessments and
identifications on our survey drawings. These classifications
reflected preliminary recommendations of the level of action
required to stabilize the object. Once failure types were
identified and quantified, we began to develop a repair/
restoration philosophy and implementation program.
We created spreadsheets by type of deterioration (cracks,
spalls, repairs, efflorescence, delamination) or by element
(piers, bench bases) with data for each located item of
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Photo courtesy Simpson Strong-Tie