ACI member Ioannis P. Sfikas is a Senior
Engineer with Mott MacDonald Ltd. He
has 14 years of experience, is chartered
with the UK Institution of Civil Engineers,
and is a Professional Civil Engineer of the
Technical Chamber of Greece. He is also
a member of the UK Institute of Concrete
Technology and RILEM. Sfikas focuses
mainly on concrete materials design and
assessment for large infrastructure projects
around the world.
Leo D. McKibbins is Technical Director
of the Civil Asset Management and
Materials Technology team, based in
Mott MacDonald’s head office in the UK.
Over the past 20 years, he has led and
supported the durability assessment
and design of structures for many major
infrastructure projects in the Middle East
George Daoutis is a Principal Bridge
Engineer with Mott MacDonald. He is
chartered with the UK Institution of Civil
Engineers and is a Professional Civil
Engineer of the Technical Chamber of
Greece. He is acting as the Mott MacDonald
Middle East practice leader for bridges.
Daoutis has had extensive experience in the
design of complex bridges on high-profile
projects such as the Dubai Metro, Taiwan
High Speed Rail, Kuala Lumpur MRT, and others.
www.concreteinternational.com | Ci | JULY 2019 37
the contractor’s consultant, Mott MacDonald Ltd. The UK-based
team developed a strategy based on a comprehensive
assessment methodology and the application of durability
design principles based on experience gained from other major
infrastructure projects across the Middle East and elsewhere.
Using advanced deterioration modeling tools and thermal
analysis models, minimum requirements for concrete
materials and mixture designs were specified to accommodate
the very aggressive local environment and ground conditions.
These resulted in the specification of “triple blend” cements
with target proportions of portland cement, slag cement or fly
ash, and silica fume as well as low w/cm. In terms of
performance, the resistance to chloride migration was one of
the most critical design parameters. Additional
recommendations for placement techniques, finishing
operations, and adequate curing were made aimed at ensuring
good mixture quality and superior durability performance of
the final product for both precast and cast-in-place concrete
elements used in construction.
Consistently promoting collaboration and active
communication links between all parties involved in design
and construction helped to overcome the inevitable challenges
that arose during construction, helping to produce a modern
high-capacity highway network that will stand the test of time
in these challenging Middle East conditions.
1. Concrete Society 163, “Guide to the Design of Concrete Structures
in the Arabian Peninsula,” British Cement Association, 2008, 78 pp.
2. CIRIA Report C577, “Guide to the Construction of Reinforced
Concrete in the Arabian Peninsula,” M. Walker, ed., CIRIA/Concrete
Society, Mar. 2002, 208 pp.
3. Lea’s Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, fourth edition, P.C.
Hewlett, ed., Elsevier, 1988, 1087 pp.
4. BS EN 206-1:2000, “Concrete—Part 1: Specification,
Performance, Production and Conformity,” British Standards Institution,
London, UK, 2001, 74 pp.
5. BS 8500-1:2006+A1:2012, “Concrete—Complementary British
Standard to BS EN 206-1, Method of Specifying and Guidance for the
Specifier,” British Standards Institution, London, UK, 2006, 66 pp.
6. BS 8500-2:2006+A1:2012, “Concrete—Complementary British
Standard to BS EN 206-1, Specification for Constituent Materials and
Concrete,” British Standards Institution, London, UK, 2006, 52 pp.
7. BRE Special Digest 1, “Concrete in Aggressive Ground,” third
edition, BRE Construction Division, Watford, Herts, UK, 2005, 62 pp.
8. “Qatar Construction Specification 2010 (QCS 2010),” Qatar
Construction Standards, Public Works Authority (Ashghal), Qatar, 2010.
9. Gibb, I., “Specified Sustainability,” Tunnelling Journal, Dec. 2016/
Jan. 2017, pp. 36-37.
10. Bance, A.; Cluett, J.; Saito, D.; and Daoutis, G., “Doha New
Orbital Highway Project, Junction 7 Existing Bridge Widening,”
Engineering the Developing World, IABSE Conference, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia, 2018, 1118 pp.
11. Sfikas, I.P., and Ingham, J.P, “Service Life Design of Concrete
Structures Using Probabilistic Modelling Tools: Statistical Analysis
of Input Parameters,” Concrete Solutions: Proceedings of the 6th
International Conference on Concrete Repair, M. Grantham, I.
Papayianni, and K. Sideris, eds., Thessaloniki, Greece, 2016, 632 pp.
12. fib Bulletin No. 34, “Model Code for Service Life Design,” fib,
Lausanne, Switzerland, 2006, 116 pp.
13. Sfikas, I.P.; Ingham, J.; and Baber, J., “Simulating Thermal
Behaviour of Concrete by FEA: State-of-the-Art Review,” Proceedings
of the Institution of Civil Engineers—Construction Materials, ICE,
London, UK, V. 171, No. 2, 2015, pp. 59-71.
14. Bamford, P.B., “Early-Age Thermal Crack Control in Concrete
(CIRIA C660),” CIRIA, London, UK, 2007, 23 pp.
15. Quillin, K., “Delayed Ettringite Formation: In-situ Concrete (IP
11/01),” BRE, Watford, Herts, UK, 2001, 8 pp.
16. ACI Committee 305, “Hot Weather Concreting (ACI 305R-99),”
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 1999, 20 pp.
17. Azenha, M.; Sfikas, I.P.; Wyrzykowski, M.; Kuperman, S.; and
Knoppik, A., “Temperature Control,” Thermal Cracking of Massive
Concrete Structures: State of the Art Report of the RILEM Technical
Committee 254-CMS, E.M.R. Fairbairn and M. Azenha, eds., Springer
International Publishing, New York, NY, 2018, pp. 153-179.
Selected for reader interest by the editors.