Efflorescence is a deposit—usually white—formed on the surface of a concrete or masonry surface.

Salts or bases emerge in solution to form the deposit, usually as a result of evaporation or carbonation.

Related Articles:

Beall, C., "How to Stop Efflorescence," Masonry Construction, May 1988, pp. 79-82.

Troubleshooting: "Efflorescence," Concrete Construction, Aug. 2000, p. 82.

Kenney, A. R., "Avoiding Efflorescence in Architectural Precast Concrete," Concrete Journal, July 1996, pp. 498-500.

Neville, A., "Efflorescence—Surface Blemish or Internal Problem?, Part 1: The Knowledge," Concrete International, V. 24, No. 8, Aug. 2002, pp. 86-90.

Neville, A., "Efflorescence—Surface Blemish or Internal Problem?, Part 2: Situation in Practice," Concrete International, V. 24, No. 9, Sept. 2002, pp. 85-88.

Schierhorn, Carolyn, "Efflorescence & Stains: A Quiz," Masonry Construction, Aug. 1995, pp. 409-412.

Other references:

Bensted, J., "Efflorescence—Prevention is Better Than Cure," Concrete, Sept. 2000, pp. 40-41.

Higgins, D. D., "Efflorescence on Concrete," Appearance Matters, Cement and Concrete Association (U.K.), 1982, 8 pp.

Kennerley, R. A., Efflorescent Deposits on Concrete, New Zealand Concrete Construction, Dec. 1981, pp. 21-24.

Kresse, P., Efflorescence and Its Prevention, Betonwerk + Fertigteiltechnik (Germany), Oct. 1991, pp. 73-87.

Ritchie, T., Efflorescence, CBD 2, Canadian Building Digest, Division of Building Research, National Research Council, Feb. 1960, 4 pp.

Suprenant, B., "Efflorescence—Minimizing Unsightly Staining," Concrete Construction, Mar. 1992, pp. 240-243.

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