FRC Bowling Ball Competition

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2014 FRC Bowling Ball Winners & Results »

Objectives

The objective of this competition is to demonstrate the effect of fibers in reinforcing concrete, to gain experience in forming and fabricating a concrete fiber-reinforced element, and to encourage creativity in engineering design and analysis.

Competition

The Competition is divided into two separate categories: the Bowling Ball Performance Category and the Presentation Category. The Bowling Ball Performance Category will include five performance tests associated with each team and their bowling ball:

    • The mass test;
    • The diameter consistency test;
    • The bowling test;
    • The final deformation load test; and
    • The toughness load test.

A score will be awarded to each team for each test based on the characteristics of the bowling ball or the performance of the team and its bowling ball. These test scores will be converted into competition points based on the relative importance of each test. The team rankings for the Bowling Ball Performance Category will be based on the number of competition points earned as a result of all the performance tests.

The Presentation Category will require each interested team to submit a poster. Each poster will be judged and awarded a score by a panel of judges. The team rankings for the Poster Presentation Category will be based on the average score each poster receives from the judges.

Teams are encouraged to enter both the Performance Category as well as the Presentation Category. However, this is not a requirement. An individual team may enter either category or both. Keep in mind that the Presentation Category requires knowledge and experience related to the research, manufacture, and performance of a fiber-reinforced concrete bowling ball.

Prizes

Prizes will be awarded in both the Performance and Presentation categories. First, second, and third prizes will be awarded in each category to the teams as defined in the rules. The awardees will each receive a certificate of recognition. Further recognition, if space allows, will be from ACI’s website and Concrete International magazine. First- place prize money in each category is $750.00. Second-place prize money in each category is $500.00. Third-place prize money in each category is $250.00.

Rules

The Challenge

  1. To design and construct a fiber-reinforced concrete bowling ball that achieves optimal performance for specified tests and tasks.
  2. To document and present the team’s work to an audience of industry professionals.

Read more.

The Student Team

  1. Each team must have a supervising faculty advisor who will see that the team complies with the rules of the competition. The faculty member is permitted to advise more than one team.
  2. A team is limited to five students currently enrolled in a high school or an undergraduate college or university program. Undergraduate students on cooperative or internship work assignment are eligible to compete. All members of a given team must be from the same school. A student may not be a member of more than one team.
  3. At least one individual (faculty advisor or student team member) must be designated to represent each team and be present for each of the bowling ball tests..
  4. Each team must register using the blue registration box. Only the first two completed advance registrations will be accepted from one school. Additional teams will only be accepted if an earlier entry from the same school withdraws from the competition. ACI encourages schools to hold local competitions to select the teams that will represent them at this international competition.
  5. Each team must also submit the Official Submittal Form (link above). This form should be sent electronically to students@concrete.org by March 16, 2014.








Materials and Curing

  1. The bowling ball must use cementitious materials as the binder. The cementitious materials shall be portland cement meeting ASTM C150, blended cement meeting ASTM C595, or expansive cement meeting ASTM C845. Supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash and natural pozzolan meeting ASTM C618, silica fume meeting ASTM C1240, and slag meeting ASTM C989 may also be used.
  2. Any type of nonmetallic aggregate may be used.
  3. Chemical admixtures meeting ASTM C494 or ASTM C1017 may be used. Glues and similar binders, such as epoxies and other polymers, are not allowed.
  4. Curing shall be at atmospheric pressure. The curing temperatures shall not exceed the boiling point of water. Use of a standard moist-curing room is permitted.
  5. The bowling ball must be constructed from a fiber-reinforced concrete mixture. The fiber-reinforced concrete mixture design shall include fibers with a maximum length of 60 mm and made of steel, glass, synthetic, or natural materials as described in ACI 544.1R. The fibers may be used at any dosage rate. No other type of reinforcing is allowed.
  6. Filling of honeycombed surfaces after casting is allowed. Fill materials must be selected from the same materials used in the original concrete mixture.








Specimen

  1. Each team shall bring two concrete bowling balls to the competition.
  2. The bowling balls’ mass shall not exceed 5.5 kg.
  3. The bowling balls shall be spherical (no finger holes) and measure 200 mm ± 15 mm diameter.
  4. The bowling balls may be solid (homogeneous) or core-filled. If core-filled, the maximum density of the filler material shall be no greater than 2400 kg/m3.
  5. The bowling balls cannot be cast prior to February 20, 2014
  6. Modification of entries shall not be permitted once they are submitted for the competition.








Bowling Ball Performance Category

Each test shall be handled by a group of judges appointed by ACI Subcommittee 544-B, Education, or their assigns. Each team shall submit two balls for Mass and Diameter Testing. Each ball must be marked (using a permanent marker) with the same five-letter code (generated by the team) that signifies which team the ball represents along with a unique numeral (1 or 2) to distinguish one ball from the other. The individual balls must also be marked with the predicted test load (in Newtons) which the team determines is needed to deform it by 25 mm (refer to the Final Deformation Load Test).

The Judges will select a “test ball” at random from the two balls submitted by each team. This will be the ball the team will use to enter the Testing Phase of the competition. If a team’s test ball is disqualified during either the Mass Test or the Diameter Test, the alternative ball can be tested for mass and diameter and the alternative ball will be designated as the “test ball.” Only those scores associated with the qualified test ball shall count toward points in the competition.

  1. Mass Test (10% of the Ball Performance Category)—The judges shall weigh the test ball to verify that it meets the mass requirements set forth in these rules. The mass of each ball will be determined and documented using a scale of the judges’ choice. All balls will be weighed using the same scale. The actual mass of the bowling ball in kg will be the mass test score carried through to the evaluation phase of the competition. If the ball weighs more than 5.5 kg, it shall be disqualified. If both balls fail the Mass Test, the team will be disqualified from the Performance Category of the competition.
  2. Diameter Consistency Test (10% of the Ball Performance Category)—The test ball will be measured along three different axes arbitrarily selected by the judges for adherence to the bowling ball diameter consistency requirements set forth in these rules. Three specific diameter measurements will be recorded (in millimeters) as the scores for the diameter test to be carried through to the Evaluation Phase of the competition. If any of the diameter measurements of the bowling ball are 15 mm greater or less than the design standard of 200 mm, the ball shall be disqualified. If both balls fail the Diameter Consistency Test, the team will be disqualified from the Performance Category of the Competition. A team may not compete in the Performance Category unless their test ball has passed both the mass and diameter tests.
  3. Bowling Test (30% of the Ball Performance Category)—The bowling apparatus (ramp and alley) will be provided at the competition. One and only one team member can be identified as the “Team Bowler.” The Team Bowler, with no assistance from any other members of the team, will position the test ball at the top of a V-shaped ramp and release it down the ramp onto a flat, non-oiled, hard-surfaced lane. The ramp will be approximately 1220 mm long and raised 400 mm on one end to achieve a reasonable ball speed. The bowling lane (or alley) will be approximately 1000 mm wide and 4000 mm long.















    Each team will “roll” and score three frames of bowling. Six standard-sized bowling pins will be used and will be arranged and spaced in accordance with the first three rows of a standard 10-pin arrangement (the pins will be approximately 300 mm apart). Standard 10-pin scoring (with carry over for spares and strikes) will be used but adjusted for a six-pin format. Because there are only six pins and three frames, the maximum score that can be attained (three frames at 18 pins or five, six-pin strikes in a row) will be a 54. The team’s score at the end of three frames will be the Bowling Test Score to be carried through to the Point Evaluation Phase of the competition.















    The inclined ramp must be used to deliver the ball. Under no circumstances is the ball to be thrown, launched, or catapulted down the alley toward the pins. If the bowl rolls off the side of the alley prior to striking the pins, it is considered a gutter ball and no pins will be scored for that roll. Once the bowling ball is released and begins its descent down the incline, the ball may not be retrieved. The resulting pin count will be recorded as the score for that ball. The judges will be responsible for setting the pins and recording the score. No practice rolls will be given to any team or individual prior to the test. Any practice rolls on ACI equipment will result in team disqualification.
  4. Final Deformation Load Test (20% of the Ball Performance Category)—Prior to competition, the team must identify the predicted load (in Newtons) at which the test ball will be deformed by 25 mm. If the predicted load is not identified prior to the application of the mechanical load, the test ball will be disqualified. The test ball will be placed in a testing apparatus. A load shall be applied with the initial speed of the crosshead displacement set at 10 mm/minute. The load will be applied until the crosshead displacement of the testing apparatus has traveled 25 mm. The load at 25 mm is considered the Final Deformation Load. This load, along with the load the team predicted for the 25 mm deformation, are the Final Deformation Load Test Scores to be carried through to the Evaluation Phase of the competition.
  5. Toughness Load Test (30% of the Ball Performance Category)—While conducting the Final Deformation Load Test, the load (in Newtons) will be recorded for every 5 mm of crosshead displacement and the average of the five loads will be computed. The average load for these five displacement points will be the Toughness Load Test Score to be carried through to the Evaluation Phase of the competition.








Poster Presentation Category

  1. Poster Presentation. The poster presentation team shall prepare a poster that documents the research effort, experimental methodology, design philosophy, manufacturing procedures, and general lessons learned in developing a fiber-reinforced concrete bowling ball. Each poster presentation team shall submit one and only one poster.

The poster can be created on any rolled medium but it must be light enough to be affixed to a wall or bulletin board using masking tape or push pins. The maximum size of each poster shall be limited to 800 mm horizontal x 1200 mm vertical. An area 150 mm wide x 100 mm high in the lower right-hand corner of the poster shall identify the team name, the team’s school association, the same five-letter code shown on the team’s bowling balls (if applicable), the advisor’s name, a contact phone number or e-mail for the advisor, and the names of the student team members. All material must be accessible without having to lift or turn a page. There may be no mechanical or electrical devices attached to the poster. Use a font size such that the minimum printed height of the font’s capital letters are 6 mm.

Each poster must be submitted to the judges at registration and prior to the start of the competition. Posters will be placed on display during the Performance Category of the competition. At least two judges will evaluate each poster individually and provide a documented score for every poster. Final scores for each poster will be posted; however, copies of a team’s individual evaluation sheet will be made available only to that team and only at their request.

The poster presentation is designed to convey information but consideration should be given to doing this in a creative way. A successful poster will stand out from the rest and draw people toward it in a tasteful and situationally appropriate manner. The poster shall adhere to the size and informational requirements identified herein. It shall be well organized and easy to follow. It shall be self-evident and not require any type of supplemental explanation during judging. The information contained on the poster (including spelling and punctuation) must be technically correct.

The poster needs to fully identify the mixture design used for the bowling ball, along with the fiber type and dosage. An explanation of how the properties of the bowling ball change subject to the type and size of the fiber selected as well as variations in the mixture design should be provided. The team’s experimental process as well as its manufacturing process should be documented along with an explanation of how both were or could be improved or economized. Finally, the poster should provide suggestions for potential improvements or process techniques that may warrant further study. Posters must be the original design and creation of the entrants. Each poster shall be unique to a team. In submitting the poster, each team agrees that the poster may be displayed on ACI’s website and in Concrete International magazine.

Using the evaluation sheets, each judge will calculate a score of 0 through 10 (10 being the best) for each poster in each of 10 categories. The average score of all the judges becomes the team’s presentation score as well as the total competition points for the Poster Presentation Category of the competition.

The ten categories in which the posters will be evaluated include:

  1. Adherence to the specified poster format;
  2. General presentation and appearance of the poster;
  3. Organization and clarity of scientific principles used in the development of the mixture;
  4. Soundness of the scientific principles used in the development of the mixture design;
  5. Presentation of intermediate experimental results;
  6. Explanation of their choice of fiber;
  7. Explanation of the changes in the performance of the mixture as they relate to fiber dosage;
  8. Clarity and economy of the manufacturing process;
  9. Guidance and suggestions for further study; and
  10. Economy of information presented.








Test Evaluation and Competition Points

Evaluation of the Bowling Ball Performance Category

Mass Test—The Mass Test Score is the actual mass of the bowling ball (in kg). The intent of the test is to develop a ball with the highest mass without going over the 5.5 kg limit. A team’s mass score is represented by MT and the lowest bowling ball mass score, among all team balls, is represented by ML. The competition point value for a team’s mass test will be “Mass PV”, where







Mass PV = (10) × [(MT –ML)/(5.5 – ML)]

Mass PV is then modified to represent 10% of the overall competition points for a 100-point base score. If a ball has a mass greater than 5.5 kg, it will be disqualified.

Diameter Consistency Test—The Diameter Consistency test scores come from three measured ball diameters (in mm). The intent of the test is to determine the consistency of the spherical shape of the bowling ball within a range of diameter measures (between 185 and 215 mm). A team’s three diameter measures are represented by D1, D2, and D3. The competition point value for any particular team’s diameter test will be “Diameter PV”, where







Diameter PV = (10) × [13.33 – AVEDEV (D1, D2, D3)]/13.33

Diameter PV is then modified to represent 10% of the overall competition points for a 100-point base score. If any of the diameter measurements are greater than 215 mm or less than 185 mm, the ball will be disqualified.

Six-Pin Bowling Test—Six-pin bowling points are based on the score rolled during a three-frame game. The highest score for a three-frame, six-pin game is 54. A team’s score in the six-pin bowling test is represented by B. The competition point value for any particular team’s bowling test will be “Bowling PV”, where







Bowling PV = B/(5.4)

Bowling PV is then modified to represent 30% of the overall competition points for a 100-point base score.

Final Deformation Load Test—The Final Deformation Load points are based on how closely the team predicts the load (in Newtons) at a 25 mm deformation. The scores for the test are the load measured at which the ball was actually deformed 25 mm and the load at which the team predicted the ball would be deformed by this amount. A team’s measured load is represented by LM and the predicted load is LP. The competition point value for a team’s Final Deformation Load Test will be “Final Deformation PV”, where







Final Deformation PV = (10) × {[LM – |(LM – LP)|]/LM}







where PV cannot be less than 0.

Final Deformation PV is then modified to represent 20% of the overall competition points for a 100-point base score.

Toughness Load Test—The Toughness Load Test points are based on a team’s ability to maximize the average value of the applied load (in Newtons) at the five deformation points. The score for the test is the average value of the five applied loads at the 5 mm deformation points. An individual team score is represented as AVGL. The minimum score for all of the teams is MINL, and the maximum score for all of the teams is MAXL. The competition point value for any particular team’s Toughness Load Test will be “Toughness Load PV”, where







Toughness Load PV = (10) × (AVGL-MINL)/(MAXL-MINL)

Toughness Load PV is then modified to represent 30% of the overall competition points for a 100-point base score.

Tiebreaker—If, after the conclusion of the five performance test, there is a tie in any of the top three performance positions, a tiebreaker will be used to determine the final ranking. In the event of a tie, the team with the best score in the six-pin bowling test will be given the advantage. If a tie persists, the tiebreaker will pass on to the best score in the Toughness Load Test, then on to the best score in the Final Deformation Load Test, then on to the best score in the Mass Test, and then on to the best score in the Diameter Consistency Test. If the score is still tied, the tiebreaker will be determined by a conference of at least two judges, who will use whatever means they feel are fair to assess the performance, break the tie, and declare which team has the advantage.

Evaluation of the Poster Presentation Category

Poster Presentation Evaluation—Poster Presentation points are based on the average score awarded by the judges for the Poster Presentation. Each judge awards the team with a score from 0 to 10 in 10 separate categories with 10 being the maximum number of points allowed per category. Competition points total for the poster will be the summation of all scores awarded in all 10 categories divided by the number of judges, with 100 being the maximum number of points as set forth in the following equation.







Poster Presentation Points = [(Judge 1 score) + … + (Judge N score)]/N

Tiebreaker—If, after the conclusion of the poster presentation evaluation, there is a tie in any of the top three positions, a tiebreaker will be used to determine the final ranking. The tiebreaker will be determined by a conference of at least two judges, who will use whatever means they feel are fair to assess the performance, break the tie, and declare which team has the advantage.

Judging

The competition and presiding judge will be appointed by the Chair of ACI Committee S801, Student Activities, and the Chair of ACI Subcommittee 544-B, Education. This judge will appoint other judges from ACI Committee 544, Fiber-Reinforced Concrete, or volunteers as needed.

  1. The judges will determine whether or not the rules have been followed.
  2. The decision of the judges will be final, and appeals will not be considered.
  3. The judges retain the right to use any means or method they feel are necessary to verify and enforce the requirements of the competition.
  4. The judges retain the right to interpret, modify, or eliminate any section or sections of these rules as special circumstances arise.








Submitting the Bowling Ball Entries and Supporting Materials

  1. Advance Online Registration is required. The Online Advance Registration Form must be submitted no later than March 3, 2014.
  2. The Official Submittal Form must be submitted electronically by March 16, 2014.
  3. The bowling balls accompanied by a hard copy of the Official Submittal Form must be submitted in person along with the specimen no later than 10:00 a.m. on the day of the competition.








Compliance with ACI-Bowling Ball Competition Rules

ACI reserves the right to perform detailed examination and check entries for compliance with the competition rules. Examination will also be done after the competition. If examination shows that a team did not follow the rules, the team, their advisor, and teams from the same school will be disqualified. ACI Committee S801 will further document recommendations to sanction the team, their advisor, and/or school/university participation in future competitions.

Contact Information

For technical inquiries:

Michelle Totin







American Concrete Institute







38800 Country Club Drive







Farmington Hills, MI 48331







Fax: (248) 848-3179







E-mail: students@concrete.org